Jews of Libya

From the Jerusalem Post

Jewish settlement in Libya can be traced back to the 3rd century B.C.E. At that time, and until the twentieth century, the vast area now known as Libya was made up of the provinces of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, and Fezzan.

Jewish life flourished in the region especially in Cyrenaica. Many of the Jewish settlers came from Egypt. There were great trade routes that stretched across the Maghreb (Northern Africa) and to Jerusalem. The strong trade ties allowed the Jews of North Africa to maintain ties with Jerusalem.

Libya became an Italian colony in 1911, and by the 1930’s there were 21,000 Jews living in the country. Life for Jewish Libyans was generally good until the Fascists came to power in the late 1930’s.

The Fascist government began passing Anti-Semitic legislation which stripped Jews of their professions and education. When North Africa was occupied by Axis forces during World War II, over 2,000 Jews were sent to forced labor camps deep in the desert. Many of these Jews perished due to the extreme conditions.

After World War II the situation did not improve for the Jews. In 1945 there was a pogrom in Tripoli. Many Jews were killed and all of the synagogues in Tripoli were either looted or destroyed. Jewish homes and businesses were also attacked. Another pogrom in 1948 resulted in more Jewish deaths and more loss of Jewish property. This time though, the Jews were prepared and fought back against the Anti-Semitic mobs. Many lives were saved by the bravery of the Jewish forces.

The founding of the State of Israel and the general lack of safety prompted 31,000 Jews to make Aliyah between 1948 and 1951. Emigration continued throughout the 1950’s and 1960’s. By the time of the 6 Day War, there were only 7,000 Jews remaining in Libya.

As a result of the war, the remaining Jews once again became the targets for Anti-Semitic/Anti-Israel violence. The situation became so desperate that the Jewish community petitioned the king for permission to temporarily leave the country. He gladly consented and in the course of 1 month, 6,000 Jews were relocated to Rome by the Italian Navy.

Of these, 4,000 soon left for Israel and the United States. The rest remained in Rome, never to return home.

By the time Muammar Gaddafi seized control of the Libyan Government in 1969, only about 100 Jews lived in Libya. Under this madman, all Jewish property was seized, all debts owed to Jews were canceled, and it became illegal for Jews to leave the country.

Jews did find ways to leave Libya and by the early 1970’s there were only 20 Jews left in country. By 2002, all of the remaining Jews had either died of old age, or emigrated. Today there are no Jews left in Libya.

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